From the pictures, it does look like the overall shape of the bridge is wrong for the instrument. It isn’t just about the height of the D-string. The angle of your fingerboard is shallow, so the bridge ends up lifting everything at an uncomfortable angle.
Again, I cannot stress enough that a luthier needs to be the one to help with this. I know that those who work in my area will re-shape a bridge for about $20-30 and it usually doesn’t take much time at all. I’d recommend finding your nearest violin shop and seeing if they can help you out.